“HBV Free LV” Campaign Increasing Hepatitis B (HBV) awareness in the Asian and Pacific Islander Communities in Las Vegas.
WHO? WHAT? WHY? HOW?
One in ten Asians and Pacific Islanders are infected with HBV. Majority of these infections are acquired from the mother during childbirth. There is a one in four chance that those infected will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer. HBV is not curable, however it is suppressible and controllable. The initial step in achieving this is determining who is chronically infected with HBV. Recent CDC guidelines recommend screening of ALL individuals who are Asians or Pacific Islanders. This handbook aims to provide an overview on current screening and therapeutic guidelines for HBV.
STEP 1: Screening
- Patients from Asia, Pacific Islands, Middle East, Eastern Europe and Russia, Sub-Sahara Africa, Amazon Basin, Caribbean and indigenous populations of Alaska and Canada
- Household members or sexual partners of known HBV carriers
- Patients infected with HCV or HIV
- Injection drug users (current or previous)
- All Pregnant women
- Men who have sex with men
What tests should be ordered? HBsAg and anti-HBs
How should test be interpreted?
|VACCINATE (no immunity)|
|IMMUNE (to HBV)|
|CHRONIC HBV – go to Step 2|
STEP 2: Chronic HBV (+HBsAg)
What tests should be ordered?
- HBV DNA Quant: determines activity and long term risk for HCC and cirrhosis
- Anti-HAV: vaccinate if negative
- Anti-HBc IgM/IgG, HBeAg, anti-HBe, HDV Ag/Ab
- Anti-HCV and HIV: determine co-infection
What should you counsel patients on?
- Having family members and sexual partners tested
- Advise on not sharing razors or toothbrushes
- Counsel on alcohol use
- Importance of medical follow up
- Liver cancer surveillance every 6-12 months
Consider referral to specialist for further management and therapy.
STEP 3: Guide on interpreting results
|-HBV DNA||INACTIVE or CARRIER|
|+HBV DNA+anti-HBc IgM||ACUTE INFECTION|
|++HBV DNA+anti-HBc IgM||CHRONIC INFECTION|
|+HBV DNA+HBeAg||HIGHLY INFECTIVE|
|+HBV DNA-HBeAg||PRE-CORE MUTANT, MAY STILL BE INFECTIVE, STILL HAS ADVANCING DISEASE|
The level of HBV DNA is important:
- To determine inactive vs. active disease
- To determine patient’s long term risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
- To allocate patient to proper treatment
HEPATITIS B IS NOT CURABLE.
HEPATITIS B IS SUPPRESSIBLE AND CONTROLLABLE.
Rationale for treatment:
- Reduce the risk of progressive chronic liver disease
- Reduce the risk of transmission to others
Therapy recommended for:
- HBV DNA >2,000 IU/mL
- Elevated ALT
- Any DNA level in patients with cirrhosis
- Any DNA level in patients with family history of hepatocellular carcinoma
- Reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma
The goals of HBV therapy are:
- Suppression of HBV DNA levels to undetectable amounts on blood tests
- Normalization of liver enzymes
- Improvement in liver histology
- HBsAg seroconversion
- In +HBeAg: seroconversion
- In -HBeAg: no clear endpoint of therapy; relapse common
- First line therapy: Entecavir, Tenofovir